The Waterfall Model is a project management model for software development that employs a sequential, linear approach. Dr. Winston W. Royce initially discussed it in a 1970 article titled “Managing the Development of Massive Software Systems.”
The Waterfall Model is made up of several separate phases, each of which has its own set of objectives and deliverables. These phases often involve gathering and analyzing requirements, designing, implementing, testing, and maintaining the system. Before the next phase can start, each one must be finished, and once a phase is finished, adjustments cannot be made.
The Waterfall Model is frequently employed in projects with well-defined needs and little chance of modification. In large-scale projects when a systematic approach is required to manage the complexity of the development process, it is also frequently used.
The Waterfall Model has benefits, such as its clarity and organization, which can make project planning and management simpler. Also, it enables a distinct division of labor among team members and may result in more predictable results.
The Waterfall Model, however, has a number of drawbacks. It may be challenging to adapt to adjustments or new requirements that evolve during the development process due to its tight structure. While each phase must be finished before the next can start, it can also be cumbersome and ineffective. Also, it may be challenging to comprehend all of the requirements up front, which could result in issues later.
Here is an illustration of a recipe using the waterfall model:
- Gather all the equipment and ingredients needed.
- Create a list of the steps after carefully reading the recipe.
- Heat the oven to the desired setting.
- The dry ingredients should be combined in a bowl.
- The wet components should be combined in a different basin.
- Mix until well incorporated after adding the dry ingredients gradually after adding the wet ones.
- the batter into a baking dish that has been buttered
- Bake in the oven as directed for the allotted time.
- Before serving, remove from the oven and allow cool.
The Waterfall Model is frequently contrasted with Agile methodology, which emphasizes adaptability and teamwork, in comparison to other project management approaches. Agile is typically utilized in circumstances where requirements may change frequently, whereas the Waterfall Model is best suited for projects with clearly defined requirements. Agile is also more iterative than the linear Waterfall Model, with development taking place in brief cycles. The development process itself is less of a priority for other project management models like the Critical Path Method (CPM) and Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT), which place greater emphasis on resource and schedule management.